Preparation of a Thesis
Also the suggested level increases the database performance and decreases deadlock occurrences. The discussion presented shows that the system at field level locking behaves much better than at row level locking in both environments centralized and distributedbecause multiple dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements can process the same database row simultaneously, which decreases the mean service time as well as the mean waiting time. At the same time, more transaction executes on field level than row level locking before the systems begins thrashing, which means that the dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment level locking works better on a heavy work load than systems at row level locking.
A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy in computer science. Doctoral dissertations Theses and Dissertations Master.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Case Western. A Dissertation. Values, and performance shaping organizational creativity. The MA is a research degree which requires only a creative dissertation. The dissertation may be within one discipline so long as it emerges from. This dissertation focus on financial performance of firms which are operating in. Creative writing, the advisor's endorsement is sufficient. City University London. Keywords: Cultural and Creative Industries; macroeconomic context; survival.
The electronic copy of your thesis or dissertation that you provide to. A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment. But I. This dissertation has been accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the. A captivating topic is what can make your doctoral thesis interesting.
License e. Misha Rai, one of 10 fellows foris a doctoral candidate in creative writing in the Department of English. This dissertation is dedicated to my loving husband, Anjuan, and my two. According to. Sensibility is the key faculty in examining and depicting on creativity.
Special thanks are also due to the co-examiner of the dissertation, Professor Dr. Two design teams scored above average on creativity and. Tilburg University. Module Title: Creative Writing Dissertation. The social dimension of a ritualistic practice is also observed, along with the domains of identity, which are being activated and sculpted as a result of the dramatic interaction 15 between the individual and the group.
The focus is further narrowed to the birth and dying rituals in the Macedonian culture, as emblem of a spectacular wealth carried throughout generations that has bearing on creating the unique cultural Macedonian identity. The difference between individual and cultural complex is examined, providing the definitions and distinct characteristics. This archetypal center is viewed as a vault that springs emotions and associations that acquire their explicit forms through a culture, religion, and history Roy, This discussion provides the rationale customer relationship management research paper approaching the analysis of the narrative stories and literature about myths and rituals of birth and dying in Macedonia, exploring the Macedonian ethnic identity and identifying the cultural complex.
Identity Humans are frequently faced with the situation to answer two fundamental existential questions: Who am I? Who do I want to become? In the following section I will explore more closely what different theories offer to inform the field of depth psychology about identity in a personal and social context.
A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements
Then, through a theoretical amplification of the term national identity, I will attempt to elucidate a mere fraction of what it means and feels to be a Macedonian. Theories of identity: Personal and social context. A number of scholarly approaches exist addressing the identity research. Steina Jungian psychoanalyst and thinker, reasons that identity and its transformation are influenced by several forces: It is certainly incorrect to say, as some sociologists and political thinkers have, that individuals merely mirror collective movements and opinions and are nothing but miniature embodiments of social process and a dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements.
On the other hand, it is also misguided to think that individuals are isolated from the larger social settings in which they live, or that psychologically they are structured only by personal experiences in family and kinship groups and by intrapsychic and genetic factors. At this point in our understanding of the formation of psychic structure, it seems most correct to hold that individuals and their destinies are the complex outcome of many combined forces, some of them genetic, others intrapsychic and interpersonal, and still others collective.
Self and identity. The study of self and identity are inseparably tied Erikson, ; Kernberg, ; McLean et al. Identity is the quality of the self that is able to determine certain goals and devise a distinct organization of strategy by which efforts are invested in reaching those goals.
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The perception of identity provides the knowledge about oneself, supporting the normal capacity for self-definition Erikson, ; Kernberg, In the narrative psychological theory, the development of identity is commonly framed as a process of establishing oneself as dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements from others within an interpersonal frame in close relationships McLean et al.
The identity development is structured upon creating an autonomous sense of self while at the same time maintaining and nurturing close relationship with others; this process is often named individuation.
Furthermore, McAdamsin his life story theory of human identity, argues that modern adults feed their lives with sense of integration and purpose by creating and internalizing self-outlined life stories or personal myths. Erikson originally formulated the concept of ego identity, including in its definition the assimilation of the concept of self. His ego identity theory implies that individuals acquire particular identity through a process of exploration, search, and crisis.
The four suggested categories are a diffusion, that is an absence of strive for identity manifested as an overall apathy toward any identity, b foreclosure, or a premature commitment to values without crisis, c moratorium, an involved search for identity with vague or missing commitment, and d achievement, a successful commitment to a sense of identity after undergoing crisis Cokley, ; Marcia, ; Yoon, If this developmental cornerstone of normal identity integration is not achieved, the former developmental phase of dissociation and splitting amidst the idealized and persecutory elements of experience will persist to function Bion, ; Klein, ; Ogden, In other words, identity diffusion is the lack of integration of the concept of self and the concept of significant others that further results in psychopathology such as identity disturbance, leading to borderline personality disorders and narcissistic personality disorders.
Innate capacities to differentiate self from non-self and the ability to exchange the sensorial experiences gravely influence the constitution of the model of self and the external milieu Kernberg, On the other hand, the lack of capacity to contain negative affect may pose a risk for developing a narcissistic personality disorder.
Symington described the narcissistic madness as a solipsistic pathology expressed through self-centeredness and egoism that impacts 20 individuals and has astonishing affect on their social environment. This pathology causes a widespread phenomenon occurring in many levels of cultural life, whether it is a cold unaffectionate mother, a violent killer, or a corrupted group leader; in the core of these behaviors is the severe narcissistic injury.
The object relational theory stresses the uniqueness of the individual Kernberg, Jung, as a psychological thinker and an analyst, in the 20 volumes of his Collected Works developed groundbreaking theories, some of which are based on his understanding of human identity, such as the theory of individuation Jacobi, ; Jung, ; Samuels, The post-Jungians, often influenced by Jung and challenged by the criticism of non-Jungians, were able to further fill gaps in his theories as well as adapt and integrate parallel developments from other approaches to psychology and also from various different disciplines Samuels, Jung used the term identity to suggest a psychological conformity, which in his opinion represented an unconscious phenomenon.
The supposition of a certain identity e. The identity is unconscious conformity with objects; it is not an equation, but a likeness, which was never the object of consciousness: Psychological identity presupposes that it is unconscious. It is characteristic of the primitive mentality and essay about immigration real foundation of participation mystique q.
It is also a characteristic of the mental state of early infancy, and, finally, of the unconscious of the civilized adult, which, in so far as a dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements has not become a content of consciousness, remains in a permanent state of identity with objects.
Identity with the parents provides the basis for subsequent identification q. Jung,p. This happens in the process of early identification with parents and identity formation, involving participation mystique, introjection, and psychic infections. As the individuation process unfolds, a space for individual variations in the psyche opens, where complexes and cultural differences add to the variations.
Edinger provided a central position for the Ego and the Self as inextricable nucleus categories of the total psyche, describing the Self as the ordering and unifying center of the total psyche and the Ego as the center of the conscious personality.
Therefore, in relation to the identity of a person, the ego represents the subjective identity and a dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements Self is the heart of the objective identity. According to him, every psychic event is an identity of at least two positions Hillman, Similarly to Jung, Edinger, and Hillman, Stein related the transformation of 22 an individual with the presence of immortal archetypal images from the unconscious of the collective psyche.
During such process, a person takes on the qualities and the traits of those figures and becomes spiritually influenced by them into a supreme being. Identity in relation to self is one of the central concepts of depth psychological research and practice, as the aforementioned literature demonstrated. In the following section I will give a perspective on the literature exploring the other domain of identity that is the social context.
Social context of identity. The importance of the primary relationships for the healthy development of an individual underscores the social context in early development of identity. The sense of identity illustrated as evolving and altering through the life cycle is not a fixed process; on the contrary, it is fluid and interactive route, responsive to a variety of psychosocial influences Akhtar, ; Meissner, ; Searles, It is clear from the early psychoanalytic writings that the identity creation is identified with social character.
The contemporary relational theorists e. The updated identity concept for them holds the rich complexity of adult development synthesizing a variety of social roles and current familial, cultural, and personal obligations with added archaic incentives, conflicts, and intrapersonal commitments.
Psychotherapists and analysts as well as patients are increasingly diverse today Bucci, ; Mann, ; Walls, Furthermore, the focus on those differences naturally pressures the therapist to consider also the meaning of similarity Connolly, ; Tabachnick, There are some social identities that are usually, but not always, more obvious than others.
Smith and Tang propose taxonomy of elements of identity by categorizing the social identities into three clusters that vary in the extent to which they are obvious and voluntarily embraced. The first group consists of innate and visible elements, such as race and gender. The second group includes those elements of identities that are not adopted, but may not be visible, like sexual orientation, 24 social class of origin, or cultural heritage.
The third group compiles the elements that are chosen by an individual, for example, marital and parental status, political affiliation, current religion, and also those that are acquired like socioeconomic status or disability.
Dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment
Such amplitude implies great need for the therapist to have specific knowledge about particular culture, and an adequate discussion needs to be invited in the therapeutic room. Jung was able to distinguish the collective identity from the individual Jung,and while discussing the advantages of the collective identity, he pointed out the primitive influence of the collective on the individual.
Moreover, he wrote extensively about the treatment of collective identity that could lead to a loss of individuality Jung, The collective unconscious is an organic and general intelligence, opposite to an individual, which Jungreferred to as a repository of collective psychic contents or representations. However, a phenomenon that can occur in participation in ritual is participation mystique, which according to Jung means original nondifferentiation of subject and object creating primordial unconscious state.
It is a 25 transference relationship in which the object acquires utterly magical influence over dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment subjective experience. He added that experiencing transformation in a group and in oneself are two different occurrences. In the large group, the psyche is similar to the psyche of an animal, where the psychology sinks below the level of an individual psyche, taking a place of a lower level of consciousness.
Because the presence of more people together is exerting greater suggestive force, Jung believed that the group experience is much more prevalent than the individual experience. He described individuation as a natural necessity, a process of differentiation that promotes the growth of the individual personality Jung, This process prevents an individual to be uniformed with the collective standards and become stunted.
Jung believed that a healthy society is one that can maintain its internal unity and collective values, and at the same time can allow an individual to have the maximum possible freedom and sense of vitality. By nature an individual is not a separate, single being; on the contrary, its survival depends on the collective relationship. Therefore, the process of individuation should not be lived in isolation, but must move toward more powerful and extensive collective relationships Jung, The danger Jung spoke of frequently is that sample tok essay grade a force of the collective movements can easily suppress individuals.
Distinctiveness disappears; instead sameness begins to prevail that can lead to loss of soul caused by psychological regression, in which the identity of a person becomes assimilated within the collective Stein, From 26 the post-Jungian perspective, Steinanalyzed the undercurrent of globalization and its influence on ethnic identities.
He characterized globalization as a hazard that can unleash the risk of uncontrollable commercialization and occurrence of sameness, raising a threat to flatten the cultural differences and identities.
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Stein went on describing globalization as a catastrophe that endangers groups and nations, which in the mythical world would reflect a situation of being imprisoned in the belly of the whale, or being held captive by a dragon. Thus, they become assimilated into greater collectivities, deprived of their cultural distinctiveness.
As the world strives for global political scene, there are still strong tendencies not to accept and not to be tolerant of diverse identities: racial, ethnic, and gender Weisstub, People develop their identities simultaneously at an individual and collective level, and therapists in practice examine the collective identity as a critical component of the self-concept Yoon, The two broad categories that have distinct psychological mechanisms are ethnic and racial identity Cokley, Ethnicity academic essay writing service a socially constructed abstraction that has no clear or unified common view regarding its definition and utilization Eriksen, There are more meanings to ethnicity than merely the one that is based on cultural attributes such as language, values, traditions, and customs.
Ethnic identity can be defined as an intrapersonal experience of ethnic group association that entails self-identification, feeling of belonging, predisposition for the group, favorable evaluation of the ethnic group, traditional knowledge, and participating in ethnic group activities Akhtar, ; Cokley, ; Eriksen, ; Negy et al. On the other hand, racial identity is seen as a collective identity of a group of people gathered to think of themselves as a racial group Cokley, ; Layton, According to Cokleywhen research is conducted on how individuals see themselves in relation to their cultural beliefs, values, and behaviors, then the ethnic identity is more appropriate model for the study.
On the other hand, when the interest of research dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements on how the identity is constructed as a response to a dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements oppressive and distinctly racialized environment, then racial identity research tends to be more appropriate.
Cokley subtly defined three categories of definitions for ethnicity: a extensive definitions built upon biophysical features and cultural qualities equivalent to race, b more specific definitions referring to cultural differences and national origins, and c more narrow definitions based on cultural characteristics. Moreover, The Oxford English Dictionary defines national identity to be a sense of a nation as a cohesive whole, as represented by the maintenance of distinctive traditions, culture, linguistic or political features, etc Oxford University Press, n.
Research on ethnic identity has incorporated not only concepts of race and ethnicity, but nationality and culture as well. The body of research cited provides validation for the concept that identity development is not a limited process with a boundary Meissner, ; Searles, Rather, identity persists evolving even after the internally defined ego identity has been achieved Erikson,; Fairbairn, ; Klein, ; Marcia ; Winnicott, In the following section, the emphasis will be turned to the ethnic and national aspect of the Macedonian identity, conditioned throughout history, and observed from a social constructivist perspective, viewed through the eyes of a Macedonian.
Individuals are born with certain characteristics, traits, or tendencies that over time must be incorporated into their identities Erikson, ; Tabachnick, These traits can be conscious or unconscious, stable or shifting, under different circumstances Kernberg, ; Ulansey, When discussing identity, social constructivism is valuable not only because it helps people to frame the processes in which their life decisions were 29 influenced by their sociocultural circumstances, but also because it helps the group to make meaning of their differences and group behavior.
Similarly, Fagan argued that social constructivism is not an opponent of philosophy of science; on the contrary, it is a starting point of critical epistemic evaluation of science. She pointed out that scientific knowledge is in fact socially constructed because 1 scientific facts and truths are socially constructed, b the beliefs of scientists, regardless of whether they are true or false, are socially constructed, and 3 scientific standards of reasoning are socially constructed. Humans are firmly connected to time, but they how to write an accident report not cut their ties with the past, ties that also mirror their fundamental features Berg, This connection is stronger than one can imagine, especially in the Balkan Peninsula, where the national identity as a cultural artifact became much more pronounced after Yugoslavia become divided into small countries in Preservation and affirmation of the national identity for each of those former Yugoslav countries became a daily routine of radical rivalry, not only amongst those countries, but the neighboring countries as well Daskalovski, ; Blitz, Macedonia continues to have the most difficult time in an effort to preserve and promote its ethos, which is 30 different than Greek, Bulgarian, or Serbian Rossos, Macedonian identity started formally emerging during the oppression of the Ottoman occupation of the Balkan Peninsula.
Macedonia Makedonija is an ancient country located in Southern Europe, offering substantial cultural wealth accumulated throughout history, accounting for the creation of unique ethnic identity Acevska, ; Shea, In the attempt to elucidate the enigma about Macedonia, it is necessary to present a brief history and civilizational direction of every epoch on this territory, which was important in shaping its national identity.
The rise of the distinguished Tsar Samuel of the Slavic Macedonian colonies was subsequently destroyed by the overpowering Byzantium in the 11th century Jakimovska-Tosik, ; Trajanovski, In the 14th century, the Serbian king Dushan occupied Macedonia, but this unification of the dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements Slav countries was not fully achieved before the powerful Turks invaded both, occupying their territory for years Rossos, But for most of the population it was a period of hardship and hopelessness in which the 31 flame of Macedonian culture was kept flickering only in the monastic centers Jakimovska-Tosik, In the Turks surprised this movement.
However, inafter World War I, Macedonia became liberated from the Turks and became vulnerable and attractive bait, ultimately divided between the Serbs, Greeks, and Bulgarians Shea, This province became an operating stage for political and economic greed in the Balkan Peninsula.
This is an ongoing conflict that remains unresolved and threatens the national identity of the Macedonians Acevska, ; Crampton, ; Danforth, ; Daskalovski, ; Poulton, ; Rossos, ; Shea, It is clear from the existing research that Greeks are not Macedonians, nor are Macedonians Greeks. The Greek arguments, already confusing issue to understand, began to create further instability in the region and for the world because Greece insists that no name including Macedonia is acceptable Danforth, ; Rossos, ; Shea, The world, with exception of Greece, recognized Macedonia as an independent country inwith its language, unique culture, territory, religion, and political orientation.
The world is the context in which the cultural artifact shows itself. This makes the world a condition of the possibility for developing a certain national identity Connolly, ; Cushman, ; Fagan, The cultural-historical world is a cultural-historical creation. The world is socially constituted Cushman, ; Fagan, ; thus, the 33 psychology of the Macedonian self is constituted in the face of two facts: a self is to be seen as not oppressed by the Turks, and b self is to be seen not as a provincial self divided between the Greeks, Serbs, and Bulgarians and lost in their strong ethnic antiMacedonian propaganda.
The fear of oppression becomes a transmuted force expressed in nationalistic tendencies within some extreme fractions of the Macedonian population. This aspect is embedded in the psyche of a Macedonian, which became a ground for interpreting the world Shea, The fear of oppression is present in every contemporary Macedonian, evoking emotions of guarding Macedonian identity and efforts to prove its uniqueness Poulton, The development of social sciences, in particular sociology and cultural science, is intended to determine identity through its relation with the others Cushman, ; Fagan, The modern concept of identity is closely connected to the cultural development of an individual as well as to the entire society system Connolly, ; Kristeva, This is particularly true for the myth behind the antiquity of modern Greeks and Macedonians that partially govern the current conflict about using the name Macedonia.
After the fall of Yugoslavia, an enormous thesis theme custom headline meta was invested in 34 strengthening the Balkan national identities; contemporary events reveal that they are constantly doubted and questioned by the world Blitz, The gift inside of them speaks in a dialogue with the Other; being split from the homeland and being condemned to write brought them closer to Macedonia when they were away.
The last two decades were characterized by rapid change in technology, politics, and consciousness in the world. The phenomenon of globalization seems to bring more division rather than integration and more isolation and pathology rather than relatedness Stein A growth of the new media, such as the Internet and the 35 dissolution of the Soviet Union, directed the rearrangement of economical and political power within the countries and globally.
Even though living standards and political governments improved in areas in the world such as in Latin America, South Africa, and Eastern Asia, ethnic conflicts appeared in Africa, Caucasus, and the Balkans.
The beginning of the 21st century was marked with deepening the gap between the two fundamentalist worlds: Christian and Muslim. The self-centered politics and consumer-oriented behavior in America resulted in an economic crash, encouraging Europe to seek further integration and expansion of the European Union Mojsieva-Guseva, In the face of these events, America, Europe, and the rest of the world officially recognized the name and the existence of the autochthon ethos, language, and culture of Macedonia.
The truth is much more complex and different from the point of view of the people who exist as Macedonians in Macedonia. Such a situation where the tendency for destructive antagonism is encouraged by a rational Europe and other powers called International community, is a paradox.
It seems as if latent evil powers are intentionally united and freed from the chain. Western intermediation on the Balkans is experienced as a support of the sick tendencies among ethnic communities, nations, congregations and as something that puts oil in the fire of ethic conflicts, thus bringing back the bloody picture in our present 36 time.
Those past pictures establish a state of eternity and steadiness, lively depicted in the memory of history. This marginalization is true in the process of conscious denial in the conflict between Greece and Macedonia Rossos, ; Shea, Macedonia succeeded in peaceful disengagement from the dissolution of Yugoslavia; however, in any transparent move in favor of its identification and in any attempt to consolidate its borders, a disagreement arises Daskalovski, Therefore, Macedonians are forced to survive, betraying themselves and their own expectations without the possibility to create their own image Balalovska, The myriad of efforts to prove their unique identity is a compulsive feature embedded in their expression Crampton, And that is precisely the case for recognizing the right of Macedonians everywhere to call themselves by that name today.
In that vein, Kofos did not explain exactly how Greece is threatened by Macedonia. It has not been clarified how modern Macedonia, considered a poor, undeveloped country with a population of two million, without a big army and ally, could conquer dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment 38 even threaten the territory dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements Greece, a Member state of the European Union and of NATO and a country with a population of 10 million, as Greece fears they might Shea, The inflamed Greek-Macedonian dispute, which has assumed such dimensions, has rendered rational communication an impossibility, not merely on the diplomatic level but also on the economic, cultural, and political levels Daskalovski, ; Shea, Several scholars e.
Over the course of this war, thousands of Macedonians that refused to identify themselves as Greeks were imprisoned, killed, or had their land confiscated; and many villages were entirely destroyed. Danforth examined the contemporary theoretical work on ethnic nationalism and explained the reason why Greece has a guilty consciousness: Fifty thousand Aegean Macedonians were forced to flee their homes and escape to Yugoslavia in order to avoid persecution. When Macedonia emerged as an independent country in and the recently divided neighboring Balkan counties were facing war, genocide, economic instability, conflicts, and safety concerns, at the same time Europe opened the door to its east with intent to eliminate the borders that separated east and west Daskalovski, Balalovska explained how this situation created an imperative for Macedonia to find a compromise between belonging to the Balkans and aspiring for Europe.
In her study she focused on exploring what such compromise would require and how could it alter the Macedonian identity. This results in a pressure for the Macedonian identity to become dependant on international compliance and recognition. However, this was posing a threat to the national identity, thus the very existence of the nation, which culminated in self-guarding and opposition in the out-group: 40 These reactions to challenges to national identity are not without consequence.
First, the Macedonians have been engaged in a dual struggle for recognition, i. This is an additional reason to stress the importance of the outside, and especially European, acceptance of Macedonia as Europe's own member and therefore the importance of the ways in which Macedonia is viewed by West Europeans.
In such a struggle, Macedonian discourse has been dominated by Western evaluations of the country, its people and politics. Balalovska,p. In this sense, Macedonia retains a non-Balkan but European character, reflecting attitude of nonviolence, cooperation, dialogue, regard for democracy, and mastery of argument Poulton, ; Rossos, ; Shea, Nevertheless, according to Balalovskathe reality of Macedonia is the deficiency of European-ness.
She went on saying that not only Macedonia carries the guilt for that, but chiefly her closest neighbors that continue to deny the existence of the Macedonian nationality, and also Europe for not allowing Macedonia in the European structures fast enough.
This has been judged as a hypocritical stance, since Europe has done not much to support its rhetoric with specific actions Balalovska, ; Poulton, ; Rossos, ; Shea, It is clear from the reviewed literature that the Macedonian national identity as viewed by the world is established through the viewpoint of the Other.
It is well known that the relation to the Other is developed based on prejudices and stereotypes that are linked to a particular form of judgment that cannot be objectively determined Poulton, ; Rossos, ; Shea, The view in relation to the Macedonian national identity offered by Roudometof in his social analysis of the regional conflict, 41 reviews only the official Greek and Bulgarian stand of denying the existence of autonomous Macedonian ethos and national identity.
This process has enormous effect in building general opinions of the Macedonian ethnic milieu Balalovska, Being of special interest for the world, the area of the Balkans has a principal position in the astute distortions of the truth about them Shea, As a result of common negative stereotypes made about them, the Balkans become a location of acting out the performing forces Blitz, The importance of Macedonia to gain equal respect within the European community is crucial as Poulton pointed out: Western policy over the break-up of former Yugoslavia has been characterized by ineffective stop-gap actions which have often exacerbated the problems.
Macedonia has historically been the apple of discord in the Balkans. A stable prosperous country of 2 million acting as a bridge between Albania and Bulgaria and, in due time, between Serbia and Greece could transform this sorry legacy. People describe the actions of the world in the way as they experience them in the moment Fagan, In doing so, people point out that what happens must be noted because that is the emerging center between the mere events and the exact knowledge about them Cushman, However, in the present consciousness, the experiences of millions of people do not represent the objective truth Kristeva, What it means to be Macedonian, or Greek, or Bulgarian, at the turn of the century and today is not the same, regardless of the efforts of particular interest groups to tie those meaning together Brown, When Dimen-Schein wrote about the Vlahs in Northern Greece, she pointed out that the ethnic identity and its meaning and significance vary in time and space.
Walls emphasized the need for psychology and psychoanalysis to embrace the concept that human subjectivity is always present in particular cultures in order to accommodate the cultural diversity.
Summarizing 43 different views and research on Macedonian identity shows that by presenting the voice of those who consider themselves Macedonians and symbolically accessing the issue will open the road to an objective viewpoint and understanding the Macedonian identity and values. The mythology bestows people with meaning for life that enables them to experience as being inseparable from the entire cosmos von Franz, Myths represent cognitive endorsement of the rituals; the ritual is the physical ratification of the myth Campbell, Segal gave an overview of the myth and ritual theory and its distinguished character because, in essence, this theory connects myth to ritual, and it explains how they operate together.
According to Segal, myth and ritual necessarily coincide beginning their existence together, although they eventually separate into different continuation. He further suggested that in the stage of magic and religion together, myth and ritual function simultaneously.
Other scholars have suggested that myth and ritual develop separately, but subsequently unite as one Harrison, ; Smith, According to Smithmyth appeared solely to elucidate the origin of the ritual, when the ritual purpose was forgotten.
James Frazer developed the myth-ritualist theory where myths and rituals work together in the intermediate space that exists between religion and science, 44 which is the stage of magic and religion combined.
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In this stage, the myths describe the nature and character of the gods, and the rituals seek to please and glorify the gods. Myth, according to Frazer, is the script, the libretto of the ritual. Harrison concurred with the statement that the primary function of myth is the spoken conveyance of the acted rite, supporting the hypothesis, however, that myth and ritual arise at the same time. The influence of the myth and ritual theory mainly to anthropology, religion, history, and literature was enormous Segal, The anthropologist Kluckhohn did not view the relation between the myth and ritual as relevant.
However, he emphasized their separate psychological function of alleviating anxiety by providing explicit ways of understanding and behaving. In addition to the anthropological foundation on myth and ritual, substantial reflection on meaning of myth and ritual is found in the work of the philosopher and historian of religion Mircea Eliade.
In his attempt to salvage the reputation and emphasize the great significance of the myth, Eliade argued that myth is not a fable, invention, or fiction; myth is a true story, a narrative that is precious because it is sacred, exemplary, and significant. Eliade observed that all the myths are in the genesis of creation; thus he concluded that all the myths are in fact myths of origin. Eliade used the term coincidentia oppositorum to dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements the occurrence of the mythical pattern in the mythical, ritualistic, and mystical experiences.
Such insight into the unity of things can be found in the particularity of the myths and the rites in the Macedonian dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment. He proposed four fundamental notions about myth that reflect the idea of the unity of myth, that is, that all myths in the world basically communicate an identical message Ellwood, The first function of the myth that Campbell proposed is the admiration and acceptance of the mystical dimension of the universe.
The second function of the myth is creating an image of the universe congruent with the time and action of the people to whom the mythology is addressed. The third function is to validate, maintain, and solidify the norms of the society in which the individual lives.
The fourth function of the myth is to guide the individual in health, strength, and balance of spirit through all the stages of his life Campbell, Campbell on numerous occasions emphasized the relations of myth to dreams and the unconscious, which leads to a discussion about myth, ritual, and psychology. The topic can be further examined through the concept of archetypes proposed by Jung bvon Franzand Hillman Archetypes are the primal structural elements of the psyche and of the various cultures von Franz, They are images and emotions, presenting themselves as ideas.
If the myth is the narrative about the gods representing the archetypal energy, then the ritual is an act of invoking the archetypes, inviting the gods to participate, assist, and bless the humans with their power.
These archetypes represent the different aspects of the psyche, and when those aspects of human nature are balanced, an exceptional feeling of psychological well-being is attained. Grolnick declared that Freud had profound love for mythology, attested by his significant collection of antiquities in his house. According to Grolnick, Freud regarded myths as essential particles of the psychoanalytic ethos, not only in content but also in form; they were embedded in the structural specifications of the psychoanalytic treatment process.
Order Number Our essays writers are supported by our administration group who are there to help you at whatever point you require. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. Ask Question. In free english homework help online organization or a procurement agency, monitoring supplier performance does not end at reporting or presenting the results.
The results are used to make decisions about how the organizations buyers should manage the procurement and suppliers, what criteria should be tracked more closely, supplier selection or prequalification; to build supplier capacity; and to maintain constructive relationships with suppliers. In this survey, quality-related criteria were deemed imperative by the organizations, but they report essay example not well satisfied by the suppliers.
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A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements
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Type of the supplier Tick all from this supplier that apply a. How much do you hate curling? Her support A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment Science Cole A Dissertation Submitted in Partial Lease's study indicate that managers who understand how perceptions of In some cases, RFID chips are physically inserted into Toshiba h. A dissertation submitted. Download PDF. And to my most beloved person in the world my mother whose kindness is Therefore, the study aims to achieve some objectives which are a studying current condition of CAM and sustainable tourism in the study area, b identifying the relationship between CAM and sustainable tourism, c to identify opportunities and obstacles facing the area and lastly to formulate some recommendations to achieve sustainable tourism.
In order to achieve these objectives mixed research method was used to combine qualitative and dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements data to reach strong evidence findings based on various data collection methods like interview session with key officers in different agencies ruling coastal dissertation terminale s philosophie, supported by questionnaire survey to get the perceptions of locals and tourists about coastal area, as well document analysis and physical observation.
Based on data collected from these methods, analysis was made using SWOT analysis and comparison with international indicators. Which led to a number of findings showing that there is a weak level of implementation of CAM in the study area, and existence of a strong relationship between this weak practice of CAM which causes environmental degradation in coastal resources and the quick decline of tourism activity in the area, and that sustainable tourism could not be achieved unless there is a high degree of environmental protection for coastal resources in such tourism destination.
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