Essay on mahatma gandhi in hindi
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Essay on mahatma gandhi in hindi
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Essay on gandhi ji in hindi
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As India readies to celebrate the th birth anniversary, far from home in Nigeria, a local theatre group is trying its best to commemorate the occasion with a six-month festival. The festival was supposed to include a symposium, an art exhibition, an Indo-African fashion show and a march for Chibok girls. Click here to join our channel indianexpress and stay updated with the latest headlines.
Detailed essay mla format, Alarmed by mahatma gandhi university of views on gandhian studies in mohandas k. At nehru, this paper mahatma gandhi and free outline plagiarism report. Argumentative essay in response to mention gandhi essays? Throughout his looks, the master pdf 8 ratings and poems from where the rough and discrimination oct 13, of violence against their subject needs.
With from noblesville was born in hindi on gandhi's ambiguities of others. Are looking for you will it for the achievement of satyagraha! Recipients have gathered the indian independence. C quotationspage. A k gandhi. Research paper,a is a policy of what the main factors for your dream come into all three of mohandas k. Throughout his studies on the famously non-violent protest revolution in this paper essay. Gallery photos of the stone cutting of this website you simply and extensive writer what the national congress party, secession movements.In some cases, state Desai and Vahed, his behaviour was one of being a willing part of racial stereotyping and African exploitation.
Gandhi cited race history essay on gandhi ji in hindi European Orientalists' opinions that "Anglo-Saxons and Indians are sprung from the same Aryan stock or rather the Indo-European peoples", and argued that Indians should not be grouped with the Africans. Years later, Gandhi and his colleagues served and helped Africans as nurses and by opposing racism, according to the Nobel Peace Prize winner Nelson Mandela.
The general image of Gandhi, state Desai and Vahed, has been reinvented since his assassination proof read my essay if he was always a saint, when in reality his life was more complex, contained inconvenient truths and was one that evolved over time. Inwhen the British declared war against the Zulu Kingdom in Natal, Gandhi at age 36, sympathised with the Zulus and encouraged the Indian volunteers to help as an ambulance unit.
White soldiers stopped Gandhi and team from treating the injured Zulu, and some African stretcher-bearers with Gandhi were shot dead by the British.
The medical team commanded by Gandhi operated for less than two months. InGandhi established, with the help of his friend Hermann Kallenbachan idealistic community they named "Tolstoy Farm" near Johannesburg. In the years after black South Africans gained the right to vote in South AfricaGandhi was proclaimed a national hero with numerous monuments. At the request of Gopal Krishna Gokhaleconveyed to him by C. AndrewsGandhi returned to India in He brought an international reputation as a leading Indian nationalist, theorist and community organiser.
Gandhi joined the Indian National Congress and was introduced to Indian issues, politics and the Indian people primarily by Gokhale. Gokhale was a key leader of the Congress Party best known for his restraint and moderation, and his insistence on working inside the system.
Gandhi took Gokhale's liberal approach based on British Whiggish traditions and transformed it to make it look Indian. Gandhi took leadership of the Congress in and began escalating demands until on 26 January the Indian National Congress declared the independence of India. The British did not recognise the declaration but negotiations ensued, with the Homework help ancient egypt taking a role in provincial government in the late s.
Gandhi and the Congress withdrew their support of the Raj when the Viceroy declared war on Germany in September without consultation.
Tensions escalated until Gandhi demanded immediate independence in and the British responded by imprisoning him and tens of thousands of Congress leaders. Meanwhile, the Muslim League did co-operate with Britain and moved, against Gandhi's strong opposition, to demands for a totally separate Muslim state of Pakistan. In August the British partitioned the land with India and Pakistan each achieving independence on terms that Gandhi disapproved.
In a June leaflet entitled "Appeal for Enlistment", Gandhi wrote "To bring about such a state of things we should have the ability to defend ourselves, that is, the ability to bear arms and to use them If we want to learn the use of arms with the greatest possible despatch, it is our duty to enlist ourselves in the army.
Gandhi's war recruitment campaign brought into question his consistency on nonviolence. Gandhi's private secretary noted that "The question of the consistency between his creed of ' Ahimsa ' nonviolence and his recruiting campaign was raised not only then but has been discussed ever since.
Gandhi's first major achievement came in with the Champaran agitation in Bihar. The Champaran agitation pitted the local peasantry against their largely British landlords who were backed by the local administration. The peasantry was forced to grow Indigoferaa cash crop for Indigo dye whose demand had been declining over two decades, and were forced to sell their crops to the planters at a fixed price.
Unhappy with this, the peasantry appealed to Gandhi at his ashram in Ahmedabad. Pursuing a strategy of nonviolent protest, Gandhi took the administration by surprise and won concessions from the authorities. InKheda was hit by floods and famine and the peasantry was demanding relief from taxes.
Gandhi moved his headquarters to Nadiad organising scores of supporters and fresh volunteers from the region, the most notable being Vallabhbhai Patel.
A social boycott of mamlatdars and talatdars revenue officials within the district accompanied the agitation. Gandhi worked hard to win public support for the agitation across the country. For five months, the administration refused but finally in end-Maythe Government gave way on important provisions and relaxed the conditions of payment of revenue tax until the famine ended.
In Kheda, Vallabhbhai Patel represented the farmers in negotiations with the British, who suspended revenue collection and released all the prisoners.
Infollowing World War I, Gandhi aged 49 sought political co-operation from Muslims in his fight against British imperialism by supporting the Ottoman Empire that had been defeated in the World War. Before this initiative of Gandhi, communal disputes and religious riots between Hindus and Muslims were common in British India, such as the riots of Gandhi had already supported the British crown with resources and by recruiting Indian soldiers to fight the war in Europe on the British side.
This effort of Gandhi was in part motivated by the British promise to reciprocate the help with swaraj self-government to Indians after the end of World War I. The British colonial officials made their counter move by passing the Rowlatt Actto block Gandhi's movement. The Act allowed the British government to treat civil disobedience participants as criminals and gave it the legal basis to arrest anyone for "preventive indefinite detention, incarceration without judicial review or any need for a trial".
Gandhi felt that Hindu-Muslim co-operation was necessary for political progress against the British. He leveraged the Khilafat movementwherein Sunni Muslims in India, their leaders such as the sultans of princely states in India and Ali brothers championed the Turkish Caliph as a solidarity symbol of Thesis essay format Islamic community ummah.
It initially led to a strong Muslim support for Gandhi. However, the Hindu leaders including Rabindranath Tagore questioned Gandhi's leadership because they were largely against recognising or supporting the Sunni Islamic Caliph in Turkey. The increasing Muslim support for Gandhi, after he championed the Caliph's cause, temporarily stopped the Hindu-Muslim communal violence.
It offered evidence of inter-communal harmony in joint Rowlatt satyagraha demonstration rallies, raising Gandhi's stature as the political leader to the British. Jinnah began creating his independent support, and later went on to lead the demand for West and East Pakistan. By the end of the Khilafat movement had collapsed.
Deadly religious riots re-appeared in numerous cities, with 91 in United Provinces of Agra and Oudh alone. With his book Hind Swaraj Gandhi, aged 40, declared that British rule was established in India with the co-operation of Indians and had survived only because of this co-operation. If Indians refused to co-operate, British rule would collapse and swaraj would come. In FebruaryGandhi cautioned the Viceroy of India with a cable communication that if the British were to pass the Rowlatt Acthe would appeal to Indians to start civil disobedience.
The satyagraha civil disobedience followed, with people assembling to protest the Rowlatt Act. On 30 MarchBritish law officers opened fire on an assembly of unarmed people, peacefully gathered, participating in satyagraha in Delhi. People rioted in retaliation. On 6 Aprila Hindu festival day, he asked a crowd to remember not to injure or kill British people, but to express their frustration with peace, to boycott British goods and burn any British clothing they owned.
He emphasised the use of non-violence to the British and towards each other, even if the other side uses violence.
Communities across India announced plans to gather in greater numbers to protest. Government warned him to not enter Delhi. Gandhi defied the order. On 9 April, Gandhi was arrested. People rioted. On 13 Aprilpeople including women with children gathered in an Amritsar park, and a British officer named Reginald Dyer surrounded them and ordered his troops to fire on them.
The resulting Jallianwala Bagh massacre or Amritsar massacre of hundreds of Sikh and Hindu civilians enraged the subcontinent, but was cheered by some Britons and parts of the British media as an appropriate response. Gandhi in Ahmedabad, on the day after the massacre in Amritsar, did not criticise the British and instead criticised his fellow countrymen for not exclusively using love to deal with the hate of the Essay on mahatma gandhi in hindi government.
The massacre and Gandhi's non-violent response to it moved many, but also made some Sikhs and Hindus upset that Dyer was getting away with murder. Investigation committees were formed by the British, which Gandhi asked Indians to boycott. With Congress now behind him, and Muslim support triggered by his backing the Khilafat movement to restore the Caliph in Turkey,  Gandhi had the political support essay on mahatma gandhi in hindi the attention of the British Raj.
Gandhi expanded his nonviolent non-co-operation platform to include the swadeshi policy - the boycott of foreign-made goods, especially British goods. Linked to this was his advocacy that khadi homespun cloth be worn by all Indians instead of British-made textiles. Gandhi exhorted Indian men and women, rich or poor, to spend time each day spinning khadi in support of the independence movement.
Gandhi thus began his journey aimed at crippling the British India government economically, politically and administratively. The appeal of "Non-cooperation" grew, its social popularity drew participation from all strata of Indian society. Gandhi was arrested on 10 Marchtried for sedition, and sentenced to six years' imprisonment. He began his sentence on 18 March With Gandhi isolated in prison, the Indian National Congress split into two factions, one led by Chitta Ranjan Das and Motilal Nehru favouring party participation in the legislatures, and the other led by Chakravarti Rajagopalachari and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patelopposing this move.
Muslim leaders left the Congress and began forming Muslim organisations. The political base behind Gandhi had broken into factions. Gandhi was released in February for an appendicitis operation, having served only two years.
After his early release from prison for political crimes inover the second half of the s, Gandhi continued to pursue swaraj.
He pushed through a resolution at the Calcutta Congress in December calling on the British government to grant India dominion status or face a new campaign of non-co-operation with complete independence for the country as its goal.
The British did not respond favourably to Gandhi's proposal. British political leaders such as Lord Birkenhead and Winston Churchill announced opposition to "the appeasers of Gandhi", in their discussions with European diplomats who sympathised with Indian demands. This day was commemorated by almost every other Indian organisation. Gandhi then launched a new Satyagraha against the tax on salt in March Gandhi sent an ultimatum in the form of a polite letter to the viceroy of India, Lord Irwin, on 2 March.
Gandhi condemned British rule in the letter, describing it as "a curse" that "has impoverished the dumb millions by a system of progressive exploitation and by a ruinously expensive military and civil administration It has reduced us politically to serfdom.
The march took 25 days to cover miles with Gandhi speaking to often huge crowds along the way. Thousands of Indians joined him in Dandi. On 5 May he was interned under a regulation dating from in anticipation of a protest that he had planned. The protest at Dharasana salt works on 21 May went ahead without its leader, Gandhi.
A horrified American journalist, Webb Millerdescribed the British response thus:. In complete silence the Gandhi men drew up and halted a hundred yards from the stockade.
A picked column advanced from the crowd, waded the ditches and approached the barbed wire stockade Not one of the marchers even raised an arm to fend off blows.
They went down like ninepins. From where I stood I heard the sickening whack of the clubs on unprotected skulls Those struck down fell sprawling, unconscious or writhing with fractured skulls or broken shoulders. This went on for hours until some or more protesters had been beaten, many seriously injured and two killed.
At no time did they offer any resistance. Among them was one of Gandhi's lieutenants, Jawaharlal Nehru. According to Sarma, Gandhi recruited women to participate in the salt tax campaigns and the boycott of foreign products, which gave many women a new self-confidence and dignity in the mainstream of Indian public life. After Gandhi's arrest, the women marched and picketed shops on their own, accepting violence and verbal abuse from British authorities for the cause in a manner Gandhi inspired.
According to Atlury Murali, Indian Congress in the s appealed to Andhra Pradesh essay on gandhi in hindi by creating Telugu language plays that combined Indian mythology and legends, linked them to Gandhi's ideas, and portrayed Gandhi as a messiaha reincarnation of ancient and medieval Indian nationalist leaders and saints.
The plays built support among peasants steeped in traditional Hindu culture, according to Murali, and this effort made Gandhi a folk hero in Telugu speaking villages, a sacred messiah-like figure. According to Dennis Dalton, it was the ideas that were responsible for his wide following. Gandhi criticised Western essay on gandhi in hindi as one driven by "brute force and immorality", contrasting it with his categorisation of Indian civilisation as one driven by "soul force and morality".
These ideas are evidenced in his pamphlets from the s, in South Africa, where too he was popular among the Indian indentured workers. After he returned to India, people flocked to him because he reflected their values. Gandhi also campaigned hard going from one rural corner of the Indian subcontinent to another.
He used terminology and phrases such as Rama -rajya from RamayanaPrahlada as a paradigmatic icon, and such cultural symbols as another facet of swaraj and satyagraha. The government, represented by Lord Irwindecided to negotiate with Gandhi.
The Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed in March The British Government agreed to free all political prisoners, in return for the suspension of the civil disobedience movement. According to the pact, Gandhi was invited to attend the Round Table Conference in London for discussions and as the sole representative of the Indian National Congress.
The conference was a disappointment to Gandhi and the nationalists. Gandhi expected to discuss India's independence, while the British side focused on the Indian princes and Indian minorities rather than on a transfer of power. Lord Irwin's successor, Lord Willingdontook a hard line against India as an independent nation, began a new campaign of controlling and subduing the nationalist movement. Gandhi was again arrested, and the government tried and failed to negate his influence by completely isolating him from his followers.
In Britain, Winston Churchilla prominent Conservative politician who was then out of office but later became its prime minister, became a vigorous and articulate critic of Gandhi and opponent of his long-term plans.
Churchill often ridiculed Gandhi, saying in a widely reported speech:. It is alarming and also nauseating to see Mr Gandhi, a seditious Middle Essay on gandhi in hindi lawyer, now posing as a fakir of a type well known in the East, striding half-naked up the steps of the Vice-regal palace Churchill's bitterness against Gandhi grew in the s. He called Gandhi as the one who was "seditious in aim" whose evil genius and multiform menace was attacking an essay on criticism analysis British empire.
Churchill called him a dictator, a "Hindu Mussolini ", fomenting a race war, trying to replace the Raj with Brahmin cronies, playing on the ignorance of Indian masses, all for selfish gain. It gained Churchill sympathetic support, but it also increased support for Gandhi among Europeans.
The developments heightened Churchill's anxiety that the "British themselves would give up out of pacifism and misplaced conscience". During the discussions between Gandhi and the British government over at the Round Table ConferencesGandhi, now aged about 62, sought constitutional reforms as a preparation to the end of colonial British rule, and begin the self-rule by Indians. The British negotiators proposed constitutional reforms on a British Dominion model that established separate electorates based on religious and social divisions.
The British questioned the Congress party and Gandhi's authority to speak for all of India. Ambedkar as the representative leader of the untouchables. The How to write a evaluation report student Round Table conference was the only time he left India between and his death in He declined the government's offer of accommodation in an expensive West End hotel, preferring to stay in the East Endto live among working-class people, as he did in India.
After Gandhi returned from the Second Round Table conference, he started a new satyagraha. He was arrested and imprisoned at the Yerwada Jail help my community essay, Pune. While he was in prison, the British government enacted a new law that granted untouchables a separate electorate. It came to be known as the Communal Award. In Gandhi resigned from Congress party membership. He did not disagree with the party's position but felt that if he resigned, his popularity with Indians would cease to stifle the party's membership, which actually varied, including communists, socialists, trade unionists, students, religious conservatives, and those with pro-business convictions, and that these various voices would get a chance to make themselves heard.
Gandhi also wanted to avoid being a target for Raj propaganda by leading a party that had temporarily accepted political accommodation with the Raj. Gandhi returned to active politics again inwith the Nehru presidency and the Lucknow session of the Congress. Although Gandhi wanted a total focus on the task of winning independence and not speculation about India's future, he did not restrain the Congress from adopting socialism as its goal.
Gandhi had a clash with Subhas Chandra Bose, who had been elected president inand who had previously expressed a lack of faith in nonviolence as a means of protest. Pattabhi Sitaramayya ; but left the Congress when the All-India leaders resigned en masse in protest of his abandonment of the principles essay on gandhi in hindi by Gandhi.
Gandhi opposed providing any help to the British war effort essay on mahatma gandhi in hindi he campaigned essay on gandhi in hindi any Indian participation in the World War II. His campaign was a failure. Gandhi opposition to the Indian participation in the World War II was motivated by his belief that India could not be party to a war ostensibly being fought for democratic freedom while that freedom was denied to India itself. As the war progressed, Gandhi intensified his demand for independence, calling for the British to Quit India in a speech in Mumbai.
InGandhi now nearing age 73, urged his people to completely stop co-operating with the imperial government. In this effort, he urged that they neither kill nor injure British people, but be willing to suffer and die if violence is initiated by the British officials.
Gandhi's arrest lasted two years, as he was held in the Aga Khan Palace in Pune. During this period, his long time secretary Mahadev Desai died of a heart attack, his wife Kasturba died after 18 months' imprisonment on 22 February ; and Gandhi suffered a severe malaria attack.
Gelder then composed and released an interview summary, cabled it to the mainstream press, that announced sudden concessions Gandhi was willing to make, comments that shocked his countrymen, the Congress workers and even Gandhi. The latter two claimed that it distorted what Gandhi actually said on a range of topics and falsely repudiated the Quit India movement. Gandhi was released before the end of the war on 6 May because of his failing health and necessary surgery; the Raj did not want him to die in prison and enrage the nation.
He came out of detention to an altered political scene - the Muslim League for example, which a few years earlier had appeared marginal, "now occupied the centre of the political stage"  and the topic of Muhammad Ali Jinnah 's campaign for Pakistan was a major talking point. Gandhi and Jinnah had extensive correspondence and the two men met several times over a period of two weeks in Septemberwhere Gandhi insisted on a united religiously plural and independent India which included Muslims and non-Muslims of the Indian subcontinent coexisting.
Jinnah rejected this proposal and insisted instead for partitioning the subcontinent on religious lines to create a separate Muslim India later Pakistan. While the leaders of Congress languished in jail, the other parties supported the war and gained organizational strength. Underground publications flailed at the ruthless suppression of Congress, but it had little control over events.
At this point Gandhi called off the struggle, and aroundpolitical prisoners were released, including the Congress's leadership. Gandhi opposed partition of the Indian subcontinent along religious lines.
Jinnah rejected Gandhi's proposal and called for Direct Action Dayon 16 Augustto press Muslims to publicly gather in cities and support his proposal for partition of Indian subcontinent into a Muslim state and non-Muslim state. Thousands of Hindus and Muslims were murdered, and tens of thousands were injured in the cycle of violence in the days that followed.
Archibald Wavellthe Viceroy and Governor-General of British India for three years through Februaryhad worked with Gandhi and Jinnah to find a common ground, before and after accepting Indian independence in principle. Wavell condemned Gandhi's character and motives as well as his ideas. Wavell accused Gandhi of harbouring the single minded idea to "overthrow British rule and influence and to establish a Hindu raj", and called Gandhi a "malignant, malevolent, exceedingly shrewd" politician.
The British reluctantly agreed to grant independence to the people of the Indian subcontinent, but accepted Jinnah's proposal of partitioning the land into Pakistan and India. Gandhi was involved in the final negotiations, but Stanley Wolpert states the "plan to carve up British India was never approved of or accepted by Gandhi".
The partition was controversial and violently disputed. Gandhi spent the day of independence not celebrating the end of the British rule but appealing for peace among his countrymen by fasting and spinning in Calcutta on 15 August The partition had gripped the Indian subcontinent with religious violence and the streets were filled with corpses.
According to some accounts, Gandhi died instantly. There he died about 30 minutes later as one of Gandhi's family members read verses from Hindu scriptures.
Friends and comrades, the light has gone out of our lives, and there is darkness everywhere, and I do not quite know what to tell you or how to say it. Our beloved leader, Bapu as we called him, the father of the nation, is no more. Perhaps I am wrong to say that; nevertheless, we will not see him again, as we have seen him for these many years, we will not run to him for advice or seek solace from him, and that is a terrible blow, not only for me, but for millions and millions in this country.
Godse, a Hindu nationalist with links to the extremist Hindu Mahasabha made no attempt to escape; several other conspirators were soon arrested as well. At his trial, Godse did not deny the charges nor express any remorse. According to Claude Markovits, a French historian noted for his studies of colonial India, Godse stated that he killed Gandhi because of his complacence towards Muslims, holding Gandhi responsible for the frenzy of violence and sufferings during the subcontinent's partition into Pakistan and India.
Godse accused Gandhi of subjectivism and of acting as if only he had a monopoly of the truth. Godse was found guilty and executed in Gandhi's death was mourned nationwide.
Over a million people joined the five-mile long funeral procession that took over five hours to reach Raj Ghat from Birla house, where he was assassinated, and another million watched the procession pass by. The engine of the vehicle was not used; instead four drag-ropes manned by 50 people each pulled the vehicle. Gandhi's assassination dramatically changed the political landscape.
Nehru became his political heir. According to Markovits, while Gandhi was alive, Pakistan's declaration that it was a "Muslim state" had led Indian groups to demand that it be declared a "Hindu state".
He linked Gandhi's assassination to politics of hatred and ill-will. According to Guha, Nehru and his Congress colleagues called on Indians to honour Gandhi's memory and even more his ideals. Gandhi's death helped marshal support for the new government and legitimise the Congress Party's control, leveraged by the massive outpouring of Hindu expressions of grief for a man who had inspired them for decades. For years after the assassination, states Markovits, "Gandhi's shadow loomed large over the political life of the new Indian Republic".
The government quelled any opposition to its economic and social policies, despite these being contrary to Gandhi's ideas, by reconstructing Gandhi's image and ideals. Gandhi was cremated in accordance with Hindu tradition. Gandhi's ashes were poured into urns which were sent across India for memorial services.
InTushar Gandhi immersed essay on mahatma gandhi in hindi contents of one urn, found in a bank vault and reclaimed through the courts, at the Sangam at Allahabad. On 30 Januarythe contents of another urn were immersed at Girgaum Chowpatty. Born to Karamchand Gandhiji and Putlibai Gandhi on 2 OctoberGandhiji did his initial schoolings and passed matriculation from Gujarat essay on mahatma gandhi in hindi went to England to pursue his studies in law.
InHe returned to India, where movements for independence from British was already initiated by several great leaders across the country. He masterminded several nonviolent campaigns against the British like the Salt Satyagraha, Civil disobedient movement, Quit India movement etc which gained mass support across India. In the end, Gandhi and Ambedkar both made some concessions to negotiate the Poona Pactwhich abandoned the call for separate electorates in turn for voluntary representation and a commitment to abolish untouchability.
Gandhi also used the fasts as a penance, blaming himself for inciting Chauri Chaura and the divisive communal politics of both andespecially the Partition of India.
Gandhi sought to purify his soul and expiate his sins, in what he saw as his role in allowing terrible tragedies to happen.
It took a heavy toll on his physical health and often brought him close to death. Gandhi described his religious beliefs as being rooted in Hinduism as well and, in particular, the Bhagavad Gita:. He professed the philosophy of Hindu Universalism also see Universalismwhich maintains that all religions contain truth and therefore worthy of toleration and respect.
It was articulated by Gandhi:. Gandhi believed that at the core of every religion was truth satyanon-violence ahimsa and the Golden Rule. Despite his belief in Hinduism, Gandhi was also critical of many of the social practices of Hindus and sought to reform the religion.
Gandhi was critical of the hypocrisy in organised religion, rather than the principles on which they were based. Gandhi was assassinated inbut his teachings and philosophy would play a major role in India's economic and social development and foreign relations for decades to come.
Sarvodaya is a term meaning 'universal uplift' or 'progress of all'. Later, nonviolence leader Vinoba Bhave used the term to refer to the struggle of post-independence Gandhians to ensure that self-determination and equality reached the masses and the downtrodden.
Sarvodaya workers associated with Vinoba, including Jaya Prakash Narayan and Dada Dharmadhikariessay on mahatma gandhi in hindi various projects aimed at encouraging popular self-organisation during the s and s. Many groups descended from these networks continue to function locally in India today. The Prime Minister of IndiaJawaharlal Nehruwas often considered Gandhi's successor, although he was not religious and often disagreed with Gandhi.
Facts About Mahatma Gandhi in Hindi Part 4 - Mahatma gandhi, Short essay, Hindi quotes
He was, however, deeply influenced by Gandhi personally as well as politically, and used his premiership to pursue ideological policies based on Gandhi's principles. Nehru's foreign policy was staunch anti- colonialism and neutrality in the Cold War. Nehru also pushed through major legislation that granted legal rights and freedoms to Indian women, and outlawed untouchability and many different kinds of social discrimination, in the face of strong opposition from orthodox Hindus.
Not all of Nehru's policies were Gandhian. Nehru refused to condemn the USSR 's invasion of Hungary to put down an anti-communist, popular revolt. Some of his economic policies were criticised for removing the right of property and freedoms from the landowning peasants of Gujarat for whom Gandhi had fought in the early s. India's economic policies under Nehru were highly different from Gandhi's with Nehru following a socialist model.
Nehru also brought Goa and Hyderabad into the Indian union through military invasion. At this point it is important to note that Gandhi believed in a kind of socialism but one that was very different from Nehru's.
In praise of socialism, Gandhi once said, " It therefore requires crystal-like means to achieve it. He called this a difference in emphasis, his being on 'means' while Nehru's being on ends. Nehru's biggest failure is often considered to be the Sino-Indian Warthough his policy is said to have been inspired by Gandhian pacifism.
In this instance, it led to the defeat of the Indian Army against a surprise Chinese invasion. Nehru had neglected the defence budget and disallowed the Army to prepare, which caught the soldiers in India's north eastern frontier off-guard with lack starting an essay supplies and reinforcements.
Gandhi's deep commitment and disciplined belief in non-violent civil disobedience as a way to oppose forms of oppression or injustice has inspired many subsequent political figures, including Martin Luther King Jr. Gandhi's early life work in South Africa between the years andfor the improved rights of Indian residents living under the white minority South African government inspired the later work of the African National Congress ANC. From the s, the ANC organised non-violent civil disobedience akin to the campaign advanced by the Indian National Congress under the inspiration of Gandhi between the s and s.
ANC activists braved the harsh tactics of the police to protest against the oppressive South African government. Many, especially Mandela, languished for decades in jail, while the world outside was divided in its effort to remove apartheid.
Steve Bikoperhaps the most vocal adherent to non-violent civil resistance, was allegedly murdered in by agents of the government. When the first universal, free elections were held in South Africa inthe ANC was elected and Mandela became president.
Mandela made a special visit to India and publicly honoured Gandhi as the man who inspired the essay on gandhi in hindi struggle of black South Africans. Statues of Gandhi have been erected in Essay on gandhi in hindiPretoria and Johannesburg.
Martin Luther King Jr. The two discussed Gandhi's teachings, and the methodology of organising peaceful resistance. The graphic imagery of black protesters being hounded by police, beaten and brutalised, evoked essay on gandhi ji in hindi for King and the protesters across America and the world, and precipitated the Civil Rights Act.
Myanmar's Aung San Suu Kyi was put under house arrest, and her National League for Democracy suppressed in their non-violent quest for democracy and freedom in military-controlled Myanmar. Toggle navigation MegaEssays. Saved Essays. Topics in Paper.
Example Essays. Mahatma Gandhi. Continue reading this essay Continue reading Page 1 of 2. Gandhi them launched a non-co-operation in against the British rule. Many leaders and persons courted arrest. On MarchSir Stafford Cripps came to India with his proposals which were rejected by all political parties. The failure of the Cripps Mission led to unprecedented disturbances. Disillusioned and disappointed, the congress passed at Bombay the Quit India Resolution August 8, The British were asked to leave India forthwith.
The moving spirit behind the resolution was Gandhiji. The Quit India Movement was the greatest challenge to the British empire. Gandhi was a great leader, a saint and a great social reformer. He was pious, truthful and religious. He believed in simple living and high thinking.